Adopted accounting principles
Recognition of financial instruments in the balance sheet
The Group recognizes financial assets or liabilities on the balance sheet, when it becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Standardized purchase and sale transactions of financial assets are recognized at the trade date.
All financial instruments at their initial recognition are valued at fair value adjusted, in the case of a financial instrument not valued at fair value through profit or loss, by transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition or issue of the financial asset/liability.
De-recognition of financial instruments from the balance sheet
The Group derecognizes a financial asset when: the contractual rights to the cash flows from the financial asset expire, or the Group transfers the financial asset to third party. The transfer takes place when the Group:
- transfers the contractual right to receive the cash flows from the financial asset, or
- retains the contractual rights to receive the cash flows from the financial asset, but assumes a contractual obligation to pay those cash flows to an entity from outside the Group.
On transferring a financial asset, the Group evaluates the extent to which it retains the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset. Accordingly, where the Group:
- transfers substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, it derecognises the financial asset,
- retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, it continues to recognise the financial asset,
- neither transfers nor retains substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership of the financial asset, it determines whether it has retained control of the financial asset. In this case if the Group has retained control, it continues to recognise the financial asset to the extent of its continuing involvement in the financial asset, and if the Group has not retained control, it derecognises the financial asset accordingly.
The Group removes a financial liability (or a part of a financial liability) from its balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged or cancelled or expired.
Valuation of financial instruments after the initial recognition in the balance sheet
After the initial recognition, financial instruments are valued as follows:
- Financial instruments valued at fair value through the profit and loss
The instruments are valued at fair value, and any changes are recognized directly in the profit and loss of the Group.
- Held to maturity investments and loans and advances
This category is valued at amortized cost using effective interest rate less any impairment. Impairment is recognised in the profit and loss account.
- Financial assets available for sale
Financial assets classified as available for sale are measured at fair value. Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of available for sale financial assets are recognized in Other comprehensive income until the de-recognition of the respective financial asset from the balance sheet: at such time the aggregate net gain or loss is recognised in the profit and loss.
Interests calculated using the effective interest rate is recognized in interest income.
If there is any objective evidence of impairment, the Group recognizes impairment loss as described in the point: ‘Impairment of financial assets’.
- Other financial liabilities
Financial instruments classified as other financial liabilities are valued at amortized cost using the effective interest rate.
In the first place the measurement at fair value is based on prices quoted for a given instrument on the active market. If the valued instrument is not quoted on an active market, the Group determines the fair value using valuation techniques. Valuation techniques include using recent arm’s length market transactions between knowledgeable, willing parties, reference to the current fair value of other instruments, discounted cash flow analysis and option pricing models, as well as other valuation methods generally applied by market participants.
Hedge Accounting and Financial Derivatives
Valuation at fair value
Derivative instruments are reported at fair value starting from the day of conclusion of the transaction. Fair value is determined on the basis of quotations of instruments on active markets, including pricing of recently concluded transactions. A market is considered as active when the quoted instrument prices are regularly available and result from actual transactions on the market and represent a level, at which the Group could conclude such transactions. If the market for the instruments is not active the Group determines fair value with use of measurement techniques, including models based on discounted cash flows and options measurement models. The measurement techniques used by the Group are based on maximum use of input data coming from the active market, such as interest rates, FX rates and implied volatilities. In case of lack of input data from the active market the Group makes use in the measurement techniques of proprietary estimates of measurement parameters, based on best knowledge and experience.
An additional element of the valuation of derivatives is a component of credit risk including both the risk of the counterparty (credit value adjustment – CVA) and own Group’s risk (debit value adjustment – DVA).
Recognition of embedded derivative instruments
The Group distinguishes and records in the balance sheet the derivatives which are a component of hybrid instruments. A hybrid agreement contains an underlying (host) contract (not being a derivative) and an embedded derivative which on the basis of a specific interest rate, price of financial instrument, price of a commodity, rate of a currency, index of prices or rates or another variable modifies part or the total of the cash flows resulting from the underlying contract.
Embedded derivative instruments are treated as stand-alone derivative instruments provided they meet conditions presented below. Embedded derivative instruments are valued at fair value, and their changes are recognized in the profit and loss. Embedded derivative instruments are recognized and valued separately from the host contract if, and only if:
- the economic characteristics and risks of the embedded derivative are not closely related to the economic characteristics and risks of the host contract,
- a separate instrument with the same terms as the embedded derivative would meet the definition of a derivative; and
- the hybrid (combined) instrument is not measured at fair value with changes in fair value recognized in profit or loss.
The method of recognizing the resulting fair value gain or loss depends on whether the given derivative instrument is designated as a hedging instrument, and if it is, it also depends on the nature of the hedging relationship and the hedged item.
Derivative instruments designated as hedging instruments – hedge accounting
The Group uses derivative instruments in order to hedge against interest rate risk and FX risk arising from operating, financing and investing activities of the Group. Derivative instruments are designated as a hedging instrument of:
- cash flows hedges of recognized asset or liability or highly probable forecasted transaction (cash flow hedges), or:
- fair value hedges of recognized asset or liability or firm commitment (fair value hedges).
Hedge accounting criteria
The Group uses hedge accounting, if the conditions established in IAS 39 are met:
- At the inception of the hedge there is formal designation and documentation of the hedging relationship and the Group’s risk management objective and strategy for undertaking the hedge. That documentation includes identification of the hedging instrument, the hedged item or transaction, the nature of the risk being hedged. It documents also, at the inception of the hedge and through the period of hedge relationship, the assessment of the hedging instrument’s effectiveness in offsetting the exposure to changes in fair value or cash flows of the hedged item.
- The hedge is expected to be highly effective in achieving offsetting changes in fair value or cash flows attributable to the hedged risk, consistently with the originally documented risk management strategy for that particular hedging relationship (prospective effectiveness test);
- For cash flow hedges, a forecast transaction that is the subject of the hedge must be highly probable and must present an exposure to variations in cash flows that could ultimately affect profit or loss (high probability test);
- The effectiveness of the hedge can be reliably measured, i.e. the fair value or cash flows of the hedged item that are attributable to the hedged risk and the fair value of the hedging instrument can be reliably measured;
- The hedge is assessed on an ongoing basis and determined actually to have been highly effective throughout the financial reporting periods for which the hedge was designated (backward-looking effectiveness test).
Cash flow hedge
Cash flow hedge: a hedge of the exposure to variability in cash flows that (i) is attributable to a particular risk associated with a recognised asset or liability (such as all or some future interest payments on variable rate debt) or a highly probable forecast transaction and (ii) could affect profit or loss.
A cash flow hedge is accounted for as follows: the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised in equity through the other comprehensive income; and the ineffective portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument is recognised in Result on financial instruments valued at fair value through profit and loss.
The associated gains or losses that were recognised in other comprehensive income (effective hedge), at the moment of recognition of a financial asset and liability being a result of planned hedged future transaction, are transferred into profit or loss in the same period or periods during which the asset acquired or liability assumed affects the profit or loss.
In case of a hedge of non-financial asset or a non-financial liability, the associated gains and losses, recognised in other comprehensive income as an effective hedge, are transferred successively into the profit or loss account in the same period or periods during which the asset acquired or liability assumed affects the profit or loss account directly from equity or are transferred from equity to initial purchase price in the balance sheet and recognized successfully in the periods, in which non – financial asset or liability has impact on profit and loss account.
Fair value hedge
Fair value hedge: a hedge of the exposure to changes in fair value of a recognised asset or liability or an unrecognised firm commitment, or an identified portion of such an asset, liability or firm commitment, that is attributable to a particular risk and could affect the profit or loss.
Changes in the fair value of derivative instruments classified and eligible as fair value hedges are recognised in the Profit and Loss along with their corresponding changes of the hedged asset or liability relating to the risk hedged by the Group.
It means that any gains or losses resulting from re-measuring the hedging instrument at fair value (for a derivative hedging instrument) are recognised in profit or loss and the gains or losses on the hedged item attributable to the hedged risk adjust the carrying amount of the hedged item and are recognised in profit or loss. This applies if the hedged item is otherwise measured at cost. Recognition of the gain or loss attributable to the hedged risk in profit or loss applies if the hedged item is an available-for-sale financial asset. The valuation of hedged financial assets classified as available for sale, resulting from factors other than risk hedged, is recognized in other comprehensive income till the date of sale or maturity of this financial asset.
Termination of hedge accounting
If the fair value hedge no longer meets the criteria for applying hedge accounting, the carrying value adjustment of the hedged instrument valued at amortized cost and effective interest rate, is linearly amortized through profit and loss account over the period ending on the maturity date. The value of hedged financial assets classified as available for sale resulting from factors other than hedged risks is recognized in the revaluation reserve till the date of sale or maturity of this financial asset.
If the cash flow hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the valuation of hedging instrument recognized in other comprehensive income at the date of the last effectiveness test remains in equity until the realization of cash flow resulting from the hedged item. Then the amount is transferred into profit and loss account in the periods, in which the hedged transaction influences the profit and loss account.
Impairment of financial assets
The Group assesses at each balance sheet date whether there is any evidence that a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired. A financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired and impairment losses are incurred if, and only if, there is evidence of impairment as a result of one or more events that occurred after the initial recognition of the asset (a ‘loss event’) and that loss event (or events) has an impact on the estimated future cash flows of the financial asset or group of financial assets that can be reliably estimated.
Assessment of impairment of financial assets takes place in the framework of individual and collective analysis. Subject of individual analysis are significant assets according to the criteria of significance adopted by the Group, based primarily on the size of the exposure using early warning signals. As regards collective analysis the process includes assets not individually significant, and individually significant, for which as a result of individual analysis, impairment has not been identified.
The Group has defined a list of evidence of impairment, adapted to the profile of the Group, based on the requirements of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement and recommendations provided by Financial Supervision in Recommendation R. The list of evidence of impairment was defined separately for the assets covered by individual and collective analysis.
Financial assets valued at amortized cost
The Group assesses in the first place, whether evidence of impairment exists both for individually significant financial assets and assets that are not individually significant. If the Group determines that no evidence of impairment exists for an individually assessed financial asset, it includes the asset in a group of financial assets with similar credit risk characteristics and collectively assesses them for impairment. Assets that are individually assessed for impairment and for which an impairment loss is or continues to be recognised are not included in a collective analysis.
If there is evidence that an impairment loss on financial assets carried at amortised cost has been incurred, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows (excluding future credit losses that have not been incurred) discounted at the financial asset’s original effective interest rate.
For the purpose of collective evaluation of impairment, the credit exposures are grouped on a basis of similar credit risk characteristics. Future cash flows in a group of financial assets that are collectively evaluated for impairment are estimated on the basis of historical loss experience for assets with credit risk characteristics similar to those in the group. Historical loss experience is adjusted on the basis of current observable data to reflect the effects of current conditions that did not affect the period on which the historical loss experience is based and to remove the effects of conditions in the historical period that do not exist currently.
Impairment is presented as reduction of the balance-sheet value of an asset, while the amount of loss (of the impairment charge posted in the period) is charged against profit or loss for the period.
If in the next period the amount of impairment loss is reduced in result of an event, which occurred after the impairment (e.g. improvement of the debtor’s debt capacity assessment) then the previously made impairment charge is reversed. The amount of the made reversal is reported in the Profit and Loss Account.
Financial assets are written off against the related provision for impairment in case when collection of receivables becomes not possible. Recoveries subsequent to write – offs are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account as a decrease of the amount of created provisions.
When a decline in the fair value of an available-for-sale financial asset has been recognised directly in equity and there is objective evidence that the asset is impaired, the cumulative loss that had been recognized directly in equity are removed from equity and recognised in the profit or loss account even though the financial asset has not been derecognised.
The amount of the cumulative loss that is removed from equity and recognised in profit or loss is the difference between the acquisition cost (net of any principal repayment and amortizations) and current fair value, less any impairment loss on that financial asset previously recognised in profit or loss.
If, in a subsequent period, the fair value of a debt instrument classified as available for sale increases, and such increase can be objectively related to an event occurring after the recognition of the impairment loss in the profit or loss, the impairment loss is reversed, with the amount of the reversal recognized in profit or loss.
Impairment losses recognised in the profit and loss account for an investment in an equity instrument classified as available for sale are not reversed through profit or loss.
Detailed accounting policy regarding write-offs due to impairment of loan receivables is described in Chapter 8. Financial Risk Management.
Offsetting of financial instruments
Financial assets and financial liabilities are offset and the net amount reported in the balance sheet when there is a legally enforceable right to offset the recognised amounts and there is an intention to settle on a net basis, or realise the asset and settle the liability simultaneously.
Transactions with sell/buy-back clauses
Repo and sell-buy back transactions as well as reverse-repo and buy-sell back transactions, are transactions of sale and purchase of securities for which a commitment has been made to repurchase or resell them at a contractual date and for specified contractual price.
The Group presents financial assets sold with the repurchase clauses (repo, sell buy-back) in its balance sheet, by simultaneously recognizing a financial liability resulting from the repurchase clause, provided that risks and rewards relating to this asset are retained by the Group after the transfer.
When the Group purchases securities with a sell back clause (reverse repo, buy-sell-back), the financial assets are presented as receivables arising from sell back clause.
Transactions with repurchase/resell agreement are measured at amortized cost. Securities, which are the subjects of transactions with repurchase clause, are not removed from the balance sheet and are measured in accordance with principles applicable for particular securities portfolio. The difference between sale and repurchase price is treated as interest cost/ income, and is accrued over the period of the agreement by application of an effective interest rate.
Receivables from lease contracts
The Group is a party to lease contracts, on the basis of which it grants for paid use or benefit of non-current assets or intangible assets for an agreed period of time.
In the case of lease contracts, which result in transferring substantially all risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the asset under lease, the subject of the lease is derecognized. A receivable amount is recognized instead, however, in an amount equal to the present value of minimum lease payments. Lease payments are accounted for (apportioned between the financial income and the reduction of the balance of receivables) to reach constant periodic rate of return from the outstanding receivables.
Lease payments for contracts, which do not fulfil qualifications of a finance lease, are recognized as income in the profit and loss, using the straight-line method, throughout the period of the lease.
The Group is also a party to lease contracts, under which it takes for paid use or drawing benefits another party’s non-current assets or intangible assets for an agreed period. These are agreements (mainly rent or lease), which do not meet the conditions of the finance lease contract (operating leasing). Lease payments for contracts, which do not fulfil qualifications of a finance lease agreement are recognized as costs in the profit and loss on a straight-line basis throughout the period of the lease.
Property, plant and equipment and Intangible Assets
Own property, plant and equipment and intangible assets
Tangible fixed assets are the controlled fixed assets and outlays made to build such assets. Tangible fixed assets include fixed assets with an expected period of use above one year, maintained to be used to serve the Group’s needs or to be transferred to other entities, based on the lease contract or for administrative purposes.
Tangible fixed assets are reported at historical cost less depreciation and impairment.
Fixed assets under construction are disclosed at purchase price or production costs and are not subject to depreciation.
The Group recognizes as a part of the asset’s carrying value, the replacement costs as incurred, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with these items will flow to the Group, and the cost of the item can be reliably measured. Other outlays are recognised in profit and loss.
Costs of repairs and maintenance of property, plant and equipment are charged to the profit and loss in the reporting period in which they were incurred.
An intangible asset is an identifiable non-pecuniary asset which does not have physical form and will generate economic benefits for the Group in the future.
The main components of intangible assets are licenses for computer software.
Purchased computer software licences are capitalised in the amount of costs incurred for the purchase and adaptation for use of specific computer software. Expenses attached to the development or maintenance of computer software is expensed when incurred.
Other intangibles purchased by the Group are recognized at cost less accumulated amortization and accumulated impairment write-offs.
Subsequent costs incurred after initial recognition of acquired intangible assets are recognized only when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the Group. In the other cases, costs are charged to the profit and loss in the reporting period in which they were incurred.
All intangible assets are subject to periodic review in order to verify whether there were triggers indicating possible loss of values, which would require a test for the loss of values and an impairment recognition.
Depreciation and amortization charges
The depreciation charge of tangible and intangible assets is accounted for on a straight line basis with the use of defined depreciation rates throughout the period of their useful lives. The depreciable amount is the cost of an asset, or other amount substituted for cost, less its residual value. The useful life, amortization/ depreciation rates and residual values of tangible and intangible assets are reviewed annually. Conclusions of the review may lead to a change of depreciation periods recognized prospectively from the date of application.
Land, an intangible asset with an unspecified useful life, outlays for tangible assets and intangible assets are not depreciated. At each balance sheet date intangible assets with indefinite useful life are regularly tested for impairment.
The following depreciation rates are applied to basic categories of tangible and intangible assets and for investment property:
Selected categories of property, plant and equipment:
- Bank buildings 2.5%
- Lease holding improvements period of the lease, hire purchase
- Computer hardware 30%
- Network devices 30%
- Vehicles as standard 25%
- Telecommunication equipment: 10%
- Main applications (systems) 20%
- For other computer software the Group applies the rate not higher than 50%, which depends on the expected useful life.
Depreciation and amortization charges are recognized as operating expenses in the profit and loss account.
Non-current assets held for sale
The Group classifies a non-current asset as held for sale, if its carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. For this to be the case the asset is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets and its sale is highly probable. The sale is highly probable if the appropriate level of management is committed to a plan to sell the asset (or disposal group), and an active programme to locate a buyer and complete the plan has been initiated. Further, the asset is actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value. In addition, the sale is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale within one year from the date of classification.
Non- current assets held for sale are measured at the lower of: its carrying amount or fair value less cost to sell. Assets classified in this category are not depreciated.
When criteria for classification to non-current assets held for sale are not met, the Group ceases to classify the assets as held for sale and makes reclassification to other assets category. The Group measures a non-current asset that ceases to be classified as held for sale (or ceases to be included in a disposal group classified as held for sale) at the lower of:
- its carrying amount before the asset (or disposal group) was classified as held for sale, adjusted for any depreciation, amortisation or revaluations that would have been recognised had the asset (or disposal group) not been classified as held for sale, and
- its recoverable amount at the date of the subsequent decision not to sell.
Impairment of non-current assets
The Group assesses the existence of any indications that a non-current asset may be impaired at each balance sheet date. If such indications exist, the Group estimates the recoverable amount of the asset and if the recoverable amount of an asset is less than its carrying amount, the Group recognizes impairment charge in the profit and loss.
Prepayments, Accruals and Deferred Income
Prepayments comprise of particular expenses which will be settled against the profit and loss as being accrued over the future reporting periods. Prepayments are presented in the caption ‘Other assets’ in the balance sheet.
Accruals are liabilities for costs arising from services provided to the Group, which will be payable over future periods. The accruals are recognized in the caption „Other Liabilities” in the balance sheet.
Deferred income comprises among others received amounts of future services and other types of income received in advance to be settled against in the profit and loss in future reporting periods. They are presented in the caption „Other Liabilities’ in the balance sheet.
Provisions are established when (1) the Group has an obligation (legal or constructive) as a result of past events, and (2) it is probable (i.e. more likely than not) that an outflow of resources embodying economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation; and (3) a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligation. If the effect is material, the amount of provision is measured by discounted, expected cash flows using pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and those risks specific to the liability.
A provision for restructuring costs is recognised only when the general criteria for provisions recognition as well as specific criteria for restructuring provision recognition specified in IAS 37 are met. In particular, the constructive obligation to restructure arises only when the Group has a detailed formal plan for the restructuring and has raised a valid expectation in those affected that it would carry out the restructuring by starting to implement that plan or announcing its main features to those affected by it.
A detailed formal plan for the restructuring identifies at least: the business or part of a business concerned; the principal locations affected; the location, function, and approximate number of employees who will be compensated for terminating their services; the expenditures that will be undertaken; and when the plan will be implemented. A restructuring provision includes only the direct expenditures arising from the restructuring, which are those that are both: (a) necessarily entailed by the restructuring; and (b) not associated with the ongoing activities of the entity. The restructuring provision does not cover future operating expenses.
In 2012, Bank implemented Variable Remuneration Policy for Persons Holding Managerial Positions in Bank Millennium S.A. Capital Group in accordance with requirements described in Resolution of Polish Financial Supervisory Authority no 258/2011.
The benefits of the program are realized partially in cash payments and partially by granting phantom shares entitling to receive cash in the amount that depends on the share price of Bank Millennium in the relevant period. Part of the scheme payable in cash is accounted for in the period employees acquire rights to such benefits. In the case of benefits granted in the form of phantom shares a 3-year term of holding shares is applied, at the same time the amount of shares is verified annually. The employee cannot perform the rights attaching to the allocated phantom shares. The fair value of the phantom shares is determined in accordance with accepted principles and allocated over the vesting period. The value of the provision is recognized as a liability to employees in correspondence with the Profit and Loss Account. Policy details are presented in Chapter 14.8).
Provisions for short-term and long-term employee benefits are recognized in the caption ‘Other Liabilities’ in balance sheet in correspondence with the ‘staff costs’ in the profit and loss.
The Group fulfils a programme of post – employment benefits called defined contribution plan. Under this plan the Group pays fixed contributions into the state pension fund. Post – employment benefits are paid to an employee from the proceeds of the fund including the return on the invested contributions. Consequently, the Group does not have a legal or constructive obligation to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employee benefits relating to employee service.
A financial guarantee contract is a contract that requires the issuer to make specified payments to reimburse the holder for a loss it incurs because a specified debtor fails to make payment when due in accordance with the original or modified terms of a debt instrument.
Financial guarantees granted are measured at the higher of:
- The amount being the best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the present obligation resulting from this financial guarantee, considering the probability of its realization;
- the amount initially recognised less amortized amount of commission received for guarantee granting.
Interest income and expenses on financial instruments measured at amortized cost using effective interest rate and available for sale financial assets are recognized in the profit and loss.
Interest income/costs on derivatives classified as held for trading are recognized in the caption ‘Result on financial instruments valued at fair value through profit and loss and foreign exchange result’. Interest income on debt securities, classified as held for trading, is recognised in the caption ‘Interest income’.
Net interest income comprises of interest income and costs on designated derivatives being a result of effective hedge instruments in hedge accounting (detailed information on active hedge accounting relationships is presented in note (17).
The effective interest method is a method of calculating the amortized cost of a financial asset or a financial liability and of allocating the interest income or interest expense or certain commission (those constituting an integral part of the interest rate) over the relevant period. The effective interest rate is the rate that exactly discounts estimated future cash payments or receipts through the expected life of the financial instrument to the net carrying amount of the financial asset or financial liability. When calculating the effective interest rate, the Group estimates cash flows considering all contractual terms of the financial instrument without considering future credit losses. The calculation includes all fees and points paid or received between contracting parties, that are an integral part of the effective interest rate, as well as transaction costs, and all other premiums or discounts.
Interest income comprises interest and commissions (received or due) captured in the calculation of effective interest rate on account of: loans, interbank deposits and securities held to maturity and available for sale, measured at fair value in the Profit and Loss Account. Additionally, interest income includes the directly attributable incremental costs to the conclusion loan agreement incurred by the Group (mainly commissions paid to external and own agents for concluding mortgage loan agreements, and costs of property valuation connected with this type of agreements) that are an integral part of the effective interest rate calculation and subject to amortization over time.
Following the recognition of an impairment loss on a financial instrument carried at amortized cost and available for sale financial assets, interest income is recognised in the profit and loss calculated on a net asset value basis (gross carrying amount less impairment amount). In this case interest income is calculated using the interest rate applied for discounting future cash flows for the purpose of impairment valuation.
Fee and commission Income/ Fee and commission Costs
Fee and commission income and expenses received from banking operations on client accounts, from operations on payment cards and brokerage activity is recognized in the profit and loss at the time the service is rendered; other fees and commissions are deferred and recognized as revenue over time.
The basic types of commissions related to credit operations in the Group include among others: loan origination fees and commissions, and commitment fees.
Fees and commissions (both income and expense) directly attributable to initial recognition of financial assets with established repayment schedules are recognized in profit and loss account as effective interest rate component and are part of interest income. Other, attributed to initial recognition of financial assets without established repayment schedules are amortized on a straight-line basis through the expected life of the financial instrument. Fees and commissions on pledge to grant a loan, which is probable to be drawn, are deferred and since initial recognition of financial assets are amortized as component of effective interest rate or on a straight-line basis based on above mentioned criteria. In the case of loans and advances with undetermined instalment payments and changes in interest, e.g. overdraft facilities and credit cards commissions are settled over the duration of the card or overdraft limit by the straight-line method and included in commission income.
In connection with the Group’s bancassurance activity (selling insurance services), based on the criterion how the income from aforementioned activity is recorded, two groups of products can be identified.
The first group consists of insurance products without direct links with the financial instrument (for example: health insurance, personal accident insurance) – in this case the Group’s remuneration is recognised as income after performance of a significant act, i.e. in a date of commencement or renewal of insurance policies, taking into account provisions for thinkable returns.
In the second group (where there is a direct link to a financial instrument, particularly when the insurance product is offered to the customer only with credit product, i.e. there is not possibility to buy from the bank separately, without a credit product, the same insurance product in terms of form, legal and economic conditions) two sub-groups can be identified:
- With respect to insurance connected with housing loans, in case of insurance premiums collected monthly (life insurance and property insurance) remuneration is applied to Profit and Loss Account upon remuneration receipt.
- With respect to insurance associated with cash loans the Group allocate the total value of remuneration for combined transaction due to their respect for the individual elements of the transaction, after deducting by provision on the part of the remuneration to be reimbursed, for example as a result of the cancellation by the customer with insurance, prepayments or other titles. Provision estimate is based on an analysis of historical information about the real returns in the past and predictions as to the trend returns in the future.
Allocation of remuneration referred to above is based on the methodology of ‘relative fair value’ involving division of the total remuneration pro rata to, respectively, fair value of remuneration with respect to financial instrument and fair value of intermediation service. Determination of the above fair values is based on market data including, in particular, for:
- Intermediation services – upon market approach involving the use of prices and other market data for similar market transactions,
- Remuneration relative to financial instrument – upon income approach based on conversion of future amounts into present value using information on interest rates and other charges applicable to identical or similar financial instruments offered separately from the insurance product.
Individual, separated elements of a given transaction or several transactions considered jointly are subject to the following income recognition principles:
- Fees charged by insurance agencies – partially including fee for performance of a significant act, recognised in revenue on the day of commencement or renewal of insurance policy.
- Fees/charges constituting an integral part of effective interest rate accruing on financial instrument – treated as adjustment of effective interest rate and recognised under interest income.
In 2016 Bank has reviewed the assumptions of the model applied for recognition of revenue from bancassurance. In consequence in the field of insurance of cash loans the part of revenue recognized on a one-off basis as commission for the execution of significant act has varied from 5% to 7% whereas in 2015 the rate of 9% used to be applied.
As of 31 December 2016, with respect to insurance products linked with cash loans, the Bank estimated provisions against refunds of premiums, expressed as percentage ratio of refunds to the level of gross fees, at 66%.
Remaining fees and commissions connected with financial services offered by the Group, such as:
- Asset management services;
- Services connected with cash management;
- Brokerage services;
are recognised in the Profit and Loss Account on an one-off basis.
Dividend income is recognized in the profit and loss when the shareholders’ right to receive payment is established.
Result on Investment Financial Instruments
Result on investment financial instruments includes profits and losses generated as a result of selling financial instruments classified as ‘available for sale’, and other profits and losses arising from investment activities.
Result on Financial Instruments Valued at Fair Value through the Profit and Loss Account and foreign exchange result
Result on financial instruments valued at fair value through profit and loss and foreign exchange result’ includes profits and losses generated as a result of selling financial instruments from the trading portfolio and the effect of their valuation to fair value (debt securities and derivatives held for trading) as well as foreign exchange profit.
Foreign exchange profit includes: i) realised result and result of valuation of FX spot and FX forward transactions ii) exchange gains and losses, both realised and unrealised, arising from day to day valuation of assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currency at the average rate established as at the balance sheet date for a given currency by National Bank of Poland.
Other Operating Income and Expenses
Other operating income and expenses include expenses and incomes not associated directly with the Group’s banking and brokerage activity. In particular, this is result on sale and liquidation of fixed assets, income from sale of other services, received and paid damages, penalties and fines and provisions for litigations issues.
Corporate income tax comprises current and deferred tax.
Current income tax is calculated on profit before tax, established in accordance with appropriate accounting regulations adjusted by non-taxable income and non-tax deductible expenses, with usage of binding tax rate. Moreover, for tax purposes, the gross profit is adjusted by previous years’ income and expenses realised for tax purposes in a given reporting period and deductions from income arising from e.g. donations.
Deferred income tax is recognized in profit and loss, except for when it is recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity because it relates to transactions that are also recognized in other comprehensive income or directly in equity.
Provision for deferred income tax is recognized in liabilities in the caption ‘deferred income tax liabilities’. Deferred income tax asset is recognized in assets as ‘deferred income tax assets’. The Group offsets deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities within each individual companies of the Group, because it has a legally enforceable right for such netting and the deferred tax assets and the deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes (levied by the same taxation authority).
Deferred income tax provision is recognised using the balance sheet method for all positive temporary differences except when it arises from the amortization of goodwill or initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which is not a business combination and at the time of the transactions affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).
Deferred income tax assets are recognised using the balance sheet method with respect to tax loss carry forwards and all negative temporary differences as at the balance sheet date between carrying amount of an asset or liability in the balance sheet and its tax value only to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductions can be utilised.
Deferred income tax assets are not recognised for negative temporary differences arising from the initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction which is not a business combination and at the time of the transactions affects neither accounting profit nor taxable profit (tax loss).
An asset or a liability arising from temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries and associates are not included in calculation of deferred income tax assets or liabilities, unless the Group is able to control the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
The amount of calculated deferred tax is based on expected degree of realisation of balance-sheet values of assets and liabilities with use of tax rates, which are expected to be in force when the asset is realised or provision eliminated, assuming the tax rates (and tax legislation) legally or factually in force as of the balance sheet date.