Credit risk mitigation
The main criterion considered in Bank when making a decision to provide financing on specific terms is the evaluation whether the client has capacity to service and repay the financing on a timely basis without a need to realize the collateral. Collateral is accepted to reduce credit risk incurred by the Group if the client fails to make the payments in contractual amounts and on contractual dates. Accordingly, the requirements for accepted collateral should correspond to the credit risk incurred by the Group in connection with the specific client, while taking into account the specific features of each individual financing transaction. Additionally, in the case of loans to finance real property (in particular retail mortgage loans), establishing collateral on the property is a mandatory element of the credit product.
The Group's collateral policy defines the principles governing the types, kinds and legal forms of collateral, the rules for valuating collateral and the requirements to be satisfied when collateral is accepted, the rules of measuring and monitoring collateral.
The list of collateral types accepted by the Group is long and includes financial security, mortgage, material collateral, guarantees, sureties and receivables. The accepted collateral types have been described in detail and the Group has also defined the terms relating to features of individual asset types on which they can be accepted as collateral. The Group has also defined a list of acceptable legal forms of collateral. taking into account the risk associated with the probability that the collateral might be lost, in particular upon bankruptcy of or enforced debt collection against the client.
The Group has defined the rules for measuring the value of assets accepted as collateral.
For financial collateral, its value is determined on the basis of current market valuation of the asset, less relevant haircuts, including price volatility haircuts.
Mortgage collateral is measured on the basis of valuations prepared by expert appraisers verified by the Group’s specialized units. As the value of collateral of retail loans is monitored during their service, the collateral amount is revaluated using the statistical method based on real property price indices.
For physical collateral, valuation depends on the type, unit value of the asset and age of the asset; the valuation is performed most frequently on the basis of the estimated market price determined by the Group’s specialized units.
In each case, the units performing the valuations/verifying the valuations are separate from sales units.
Depending on the type and kind of collateral items, the Bank monitors them in order to:
- ensure that the contractual terms of collateral are satisfied. which includes confirmation of legal certainty,
- update the value of collateral,
- verify that the collateral exists (local visits).
The Group uses as well a range of supplementary collateral to facilitate enforcement or increase probability of achieving repayment from a given collateral type.
Use of credit risk mitigation techniques
The Group does not make use of on- and off-balance sheet netting (CRR 453.a).
The Group does not use any guarantees and credit derivatives as risk protection instruments in the capital requirement calculation process. (CRR 453.d)
The Group notices concentration related to credit risk mitigation with respect to collaterals for loans in the form of a mortgage. The main risk factor associated with this protection are:
- an increase in the exchange rate of CHF / PLN,
- a decrease in the value of mortgage.
Both of these factors contribute to increase of average LTV ratio (the ratio of loan to value of collateral) and the resulting increase in the value of loans, where the value of the LTV is greater than 100% and a deterioration of capital adequacy.
The first risk factor increases the DTI ratio (the ratio of debt-to-income for a customer) and it leads also to deterioration of liquidity.
The Group identifies, measures, monitors and controls continuously above risk factors. Conservative liquidity strategy is used, which provides for the maintenance of liquid assets buffer for unexpected changes in exchange rates. Capital plan provides for the maintenance of capital adequacy at a satisfactory level in the coming years. Both plans – Liquidity and Capital –account for stress tests assuming a significant appreciation of the exchange rate of CHF / PLN. The level of non-performing loans is regularly monitored and in case of potential problems with debt repayment customer is contacted in order to apply the right solution, suitable to his financial capability. The quality of loans secured by real estate remains at a high level. (CRR 453.e)
Group does use own estimates of LGD or conversion factors for exposures under the current IRB approval, and as for portfolios under IRB roll-out plan, own estimates of the above parameters will be not used. Therefore information defined in CRR art. 453.f are not presented.
Group does not use guarantees or credit derivatives as credit risk mitigation instruments by calculation of risk-weighted exposure amounts (CRR art. 453.g).
Group does not use Advanced Measurement Approaches to operational risk. (CRR art. 454).
Group does not use Internal Market Risk Models (CRR art. 455).